the daily lineup outside the State Employment Service Office. Many of the countrys leaders grew quite interested in the ways of the West, as they began learning about

the industrial revolution and the imperialist adventures that were bringing countries from China to the Philippines under the European sway. In this mix, the Tokugawa decision to open Japan to foreigners in 1854, in compliance with American demands, touched off one of Japans most tumultuous periods. Beside being humiliating, the restrictions deprived Japan of both sovereignty and tariff revenues, money desperately needed for modernization programs. And always there was a commitment to making Japan a modern nation, accepted as an equal by the world powers. One of the most articulate vehicles for the new nationalism was a journal named simply Nihon (Japan launched the day the constitution was promulgated, for the express purpose of reviving the unique spirit of the Japanese people. The presence of a number of street demonstrations, a threatened hunger strikes by feminists, and fears that women would be unduly influenced by the clerical vote, unnerved Cárdenas at the last moment. All of this meant that the first Meiji years were characterized by a seat-of-the-pants, try-this-try-that style of governing. The results were devastating, on every level. For millions, soup kitchens offered the only food they would eat. The future looks brighter today. The movement toward centralization was illustrated partly by a raft of new regulations: the 1871 decision to replace the semi-feudal domains with modern prefectures, the issuance in of laws to create a military draft and to require three years of school for all boys and. When a financial scandal prompted massive protests against the government in 1881, the officials responded in part by promising that a constitution would be granted within a decade. Source, in one of the largest pea camps in California. Confucian tradition discouraged commerce, but they moved Japan as forcefully and quickly as possible into the world of international commerce. But the impact of the freedom and rights forces was apparent in the constitution too, because it also assured limited freedom of speech, religion, and assembly, gave the legislature veto power over the budget, and created an independent judiciary. And literate Japanese by the tens of thousands began reading newspapers. Perhaps the most effective feature of that government was the alternate attendance (sankin kotai) system that required most of the 250 domain lords to spend every other year in Edo, serving the shogun, and thus stimulated not only national consciousness but an extensive system. It was, in short, a middle-of-the-road document that placed Japan in the mainstream of the world powers politically. Sino-Japanese War.) And they were the years in which commoners, called minshu, began to take an active part in the nations public and political life. Reason: migratory agricultural laborers. Source, roadside stand near Birmingham, Alabama, 1936. The seeds of the new national pride lay in the early-Meiji soil, when the government had worked so hard to make the entire populace aware of their Japaneseness, creating national holidays, making the emperor both sovereign and high priest, sending Tokyo newspapers to every part. Second, the movement onto the international scene made treaty revision one of the governments central goals. When the Charter Oath promised in 1868 to seek knowledge from around the world, it set Japan on a course of studying, emulating, adaptingand finally reading is fun essay for kids surpassingpeoples everywhere, a path that would bring the Restoration era to fulfillment, even as it launched Japan into the more. Photographer: Ben Shahn, source, philipinos cutting lettuce, Salinas, California, 1935. "At the bus station." Source Upstairs bedroom of family on relief, Chicago, Illinois. Ito Hirobumi, one of the youngest Restoration leaders and now a dominating force in official circles, led a group to Europe to study political systems, then headed a task force that created several new institutions (including a peerage, so there would be a pool for.

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Japanese womens internationalism was attacked using this very argument. Rice and silk prices plummeted, working conditions and the lack a good friend essay from gibbon to auden: essays on the classical tradition of job security. Lowerranked samurai called shishi or men of spirit began agitating for the ouster of the Westerners almost as soon as Matthew Perry and his followers had been admitted. Westinghouse lost two thirds of its September value.

(This essay is excerpted and modified from Teaching About.Women in China and, japan, by Lyn Reese, found in Social Education, ncss, March 2003.) (the Chien Tao poem is from Kenneth Rexroth Ling Chung, Women, poets of China, New Directions Book, 1972).

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And seemed to know that my pictures might help her. Source, california, and so she helped, there she sat in that lean to tent with her children huddled around her. As a result the government sought hamlet's inaction essay endlessly to secure fairer treaties during the 1870s. S assistant suffered a fractured skull, the treaties of the 1850s had limited the tariffs Japan could charge on imports to an average of about five percent and had required political science as a science essay that foreigners who committed crimes in Japan be tried in the courts of the foreign. The transitional decade was over, demonstration of unemployed, the governments legitimacy was established. With Saigos defeat, s savings, depression refugees from Iowa, glassfordapos. Imperial Valley, management could not replace them with other workers. Lange gave this account of the experience.

At the end of the Restoration period, however, people saw it merely as an effective means of getting people to support the states drive to modernity and power.Source Squatter camp, California, November 1936.